“The body is a carrier of relatively complex cultural values. Three experiments examined links between body comportment and honor (a cultural syndrome prizing female chastity, familial loyalty, and reputation).
We put participants from nonhonor (Anglo-Americans; Experiment 1) and honor (Latinos; Experiment 2) cultures in upright versus slouched postures and primed them with honor versus control words.
In our third experiment, we surveyed participants from nonhonor (native Dutch) and honor (Arab and Turkish Dutch) cultures about their attitudes toward honor-related violence and then measured posture change.
Concerns with honor were embodied by men from honor cultures bi-directionally.
For persons from nonhonor cultures, body posture can be connected to honor concerns, if participants are appropriately primed.
However, with all else equal, the rejection of honor in such cultures is embodied in much the same way that men from honor cultures embody honor. Links between body comportment and values are not arbitrary but not simple either. The ways embodiments are conditioned by culture and gender are discussed.”
Grounding cultural syndromes: Body comportment and values in honor and dignity cultures. Hans IJzerman,Dov Cohen.
European Journal of Social Psychology,
Special Issue: The Centrality of Social Image in Social Psychology.
Volume 41, Issue 4, pages 468–478, June 2011
Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011.
“Face plays an important role in social life. However, little is known about the psychological consequences of an individual’s face experiences. This study examined the effects of face experiences on emotions and self-esteem in a diary study conducted in Japanese culture, in which face functions as a mechanism to maintain interpersonal harmony. Participants reported the occurrence of face-related events, maintenance/loss of face, emotions and self-esteem twice a week for 10 weeks.
We predicted and found that
(1) the occurrence of one’s own face events increased participants’ depressiveness,
(2) the maintenance of one’s own face heightened joyfulness and decreased depressiveness, (3) the maintenance of one’s own face heightened participants’ self-esteem, and
(4) the maintenance of other people’s face increased joyfulness and calmness but did not affect self-esteem.
These findings provided empirical supports for fundamental assumptions that have never been subjected to empirical scrutiny in face research.”
Chun-Chi Lin, Susumu Yamaguchi.
European Journal of Social Psychology,
Special Issue: The Centrality of Social Image in Social Psychology,
Volume 41, Issue 4, pages 446–455, June 2011.
Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011.
“Interpreting ambiguous situations is a task individuals face on a daily basis. In romantic contexts the accurate interpretation of these situations is of particular importance. In the present set of studies we investigated how level of construal guides individual perception in these cases.
When a high level of construal was induced participants likely interpreted a given interpersonal situation as the start or the continuation of a long lasting relationship.
When a low level of construal was induced the same situations were more likely interpreted as leading to a one-night stand (in a dating situation) or involving little chance of a common future for both actors (in a break-up situation).
In sum, the present studies demonstrate construal level to be a crucial determinant of the interpretation of ambiguous romantic situations. We discuss these findings in relation to the functional independence of love and sex, level of construal, and social perception.”
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Volume 47, Issue 5, September 2011, Pages 1017-1020
“Recent studies showed that people evaluate objects more favorably when these objects are gazed-at by others, an effect coined as “mimetic desire”. In two studies, we tested whether mimetic desire stems from an automatic form of learning by examining one dimension of automaticity, i.e., people’s awareness of the object-gaze association. Participants saw 6 neutral art paintings associated with a female gazing toward two of the paintings, away from two of the paintings, and closing her eyes with respect to the last two paintings. After the exposition phase, participants evaluated the paintings and performed a contingency-awareness test. Importantly, participants’ responses on this test were genuinely driven by memory and not by inferences from liking. Results show that participants preferred objects that were gazed-at but only when they were aware of the object-gaze association. Hence, despite the adaptive function of joint attention, its impact on valence acquisition does not seem to qualify as an implicit learning process.”
Clémentine Bry, Evelyne Treinen, Olivier Corneille and Vincent Yzerbyt.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,
Volume 47, Issue 5, September 2011, Pages 987-993
“The recordings, taken from the brains of people awaiting surgery for epilepsy, suggest that new memories of even abstract facts — an Italian verb, for example — are encoded in a brain-cell firing sequence that also contains information about what else was happening during and just before the memory was formed, whether a tropical daydream or frustration with the Mets. The new study suggests that memory is like a streaming video that is bookmarked, both consciously and subconsciously, by facts, scenes, characters and thoughts.”
“Military doctors have added a new technique to their arsenal of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neurofeedback, a therapy that practitioners claim can reboot the brain’s neural networks, has been introduced at several bases, VA clinics and even in Iraq and Afghanistan. But despite heartening success stories, some experts question whether the approach has undergone adequate study to prove that it’s more than just a potent placebo.”
“A recent study by Juliano Laran and colleagues suggests that people automatically activate a defensive system whenever they detect persuasive intent. The work builds on some fascinating results involving commercial brands in a phenomenon known as implicit priming, in which a seemingly irrelevant word or image can trigger behaviors that are somehow associated with that stimulus. For example, previous work has shown that subliminally flashing the Apple logo can spur study participants to think more creatively, and that presenting a Walmart logo can encourage frugal behavior whereas presenting a Nordstrom logo leads to greater indulgence. In other words, the brands activate a set of associations that in turn trigger certain behavioral goals. […]
But brands, argue Laran and colleagues, are different from other commercial messages in that they’re not necessarily perceived as inherently persuasive—at one level, they’re simply identifiers of a particular product, equivalent to say, your name. But slogans are transparently persuasive. Perhaps people react to these in reverse-psychology manner by blocking and even countering the typical brand associations.
The researchers found that when they had people look at cost-conscious brand names like Walmart in an alleged memory study, and then take part in an imaginary shopping task, they were able to replicate the implicit priming effect: people were willing to spend quite a bit less than if they’d seen luxury-brand logos. But when people saw slogans instead of the brand names, there was a reverse priming effect: now, the luxury brand slogans triggered more penny-pinching behavior than the economy-brand slogans.
The reverse-psychology effect really does seem to hinge on detecting the persuasive intent on the message. In another version of the study, if people were told to focus on the creativity of the slogans (presumably making their persuasive intent less “visible”), the reverse effect evaporated, and they now treated them just as they had the brand names;
that is, the economy-brand slogans led to less spending than the slogans for luxury brands. And if the persuasive nature of brands was highlighted, the brand names triggered the reverse priming effect, just as the slogans had previously.”
“Music and mood are closely interrelated — listening to a sad or happy song on the radio can make you feel more sad or happy. However, such mood changes not only affect how you feel, they also change your perception. For example, people will recognize happy faces if they are feeling happy themselves. […]
The latter finding is particularly interesting according to the researchers. Jolij: ‘Seeing things that are not there is the result of top-down processes in the brain. Conscious perception is largely based on these top-down processes: your brain continuously compares the information that comes in through your eyes with what it expects on the basis of what you know about the world. The final result of this comparison process is what we eventually experience as reality. Our research results suggest that the brain builds up expectations not just on the basis of experience but on your mood as well.'”
“In this work, participants never speak to each other, and are brought into a large experiment room separated by a curtain. One of the participants is then asked to reach their hand onto the other side of the curtain. The other participant is then asked to deliver physical touch to the extended hand of their partner with the goal of conveying specific emotions to the partner through touch.
Amazingly, people can also reliably and accurately recognize specific emotions expressed through touch in this paradigm. Moreover, certain emotions that people typically can’t recognize very well in the face–such as compassion or empathy–are actually very accurately expressed through touch!”